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|  Oren D. White  |  Albert S. Hawkins  | 


Oren D. White
Oren D. White - Great-Grandfather
May 25, 1844 - November 8, 1924

Michigan Record

When Oren enlisted someone put a "dot" over the "e" in his name. Thereafter his military record shows Orin as his first name. He was only six years old when his mother died (on her 30th birthday in 1850). His father remarried a yonger lady and he was not treated well. As soon as he was of age, he left home and enlisted in the Union Army near Kalamazoo, Michigan.

During the Battle of Tebb's Bend, he received a gunshot wound to his upper right arm. The projectile smashed through his rifle stock and lodged in his upper humerus arm bone along with wood splinters. The bone was shattered and he was taken to the surgeon who told him that the arm had to be removed to prevent infection which could lead to his death. According to family history, he told the surgeon no, and that he would rather die than live the rest of his days without an arm. The surgeon put him back together as best as he could. The wound eventually healed and he was transferred to the Invalid Corps in February of the following year.


"And swore to the God of the ocean and land That ne’er shall the sons of Columbia be slaves,
While the earth bears a plant or the sea rolls its wave."

It was found, after the organization of the several Congressional District regiments had been completed, that more companies had been offered than places had been provided for, and the 25th was constituted from the surplus. It was ordered into rendezvous at Kalamazoo, and H.G. Wells, Esq., placed in command of the camp.

Colonel Orlando H. Moore, then a captain in the U.S. Army, who had been lieutenant colonel of the 13th Michigan, was appointed its colonel, under whose direction it had been drilled and disciplined, and who took the field as its commander.

On the 22d of September, 1862, the regiment was mustered into the service of the United States, having the following

Colonel, Orlando H. Moore, Schoolcraft. Lieutenant Colonel, Benjamin F. Orcutt, Kalamazoo. Major, Dewitt C. Fitch, Mattawan. Surgeon, Bolivar Barnum, Schoolcraft. First Assistant Surgeon, Francis M. Oakley, York. Second Assistant Surgeon, John N. Greggs, Schoolcraft.
Adjutant, Charles H. Brown, Kalamazoo. Quartermaster, John M. Ridlon, Paw Paw. Chaplain, Albert L. Payson, Schoolcraft.

The companies constituting the regiment were:

  • Captain, Charles B. Pratt, Marshall. First Lieutenant, Orange Bugbee, Homer. Second Lieutenant, Norris J. Frink, Marshall.
  • Captain, Samuel L. Demarest, Otisco. First Lieutenant, Frank R. Chase, Otisco. Second Lieutenant, Asa W. Slayton, Grattan.
  • Captain, Charles E. McCollister, St. Joseph. First Lieutenant, Jacob Ewalt, Berrien Springs. Second Lieutenant, Edwin F. Kimmel, Berrien Springs.
  • Captain, Julius C. Cross, Three Rivers. First Lieutenant, Henry McCreary, Colon. Second Lieutenant, John Gilchrist, Prairie Ronde.
  • Captain, Frank T. Sutton, Galesburg. First Lieutenant, Edwin Childs, Comstock. Second Lieutenant, Samuel Fisher, Galesburg.
  • Captain, Spencer L. Lansing, Niles. First Lieutenant, Gideon Frisbie, Niles. Second Lieutenant, Arthur M. Twombly, Niles.
  • Captain, William Fulkerson, Florence. First Lieutenant, John B. Handy, Lockport. Second Lieutenant, Darius D. thorp, Three Rivers.
  • Captain, Hiram Cook, Oshtemo. First Lieutenant, John H. Wells, Comstock. Second Lieutenant, Alvin V. Cook, Oshtemo.
  • Captain, William E. Dowd, Holland. First Lieutenant, Martin De Boe, Holland. Second Lieutenant, Jacob. O. Doesberg, Holland
  • Captain, M.V. McKinney, Buchanan. First Lieutenant, John Tennant, Buchanan.
  • Second Lieutenant, Franklin D. Weaver, Buchanan.


Before the 25th left Kalamazoo for the front a silk flag was presented to the regiment by the Hon. H. G. Wells, on behalf of the citizens of that place, and a response made by Colonel O. H. Moore, commanding. The flag was of the regulation standard, with the inscription, "This flag is given in faith that it will be carried where honor and duty lead." It was first given to the breeze at Green River, Ky., on the morning of July 4th, 1863, where the regiment, with less than 350 men, acquired an enviable reputation for a gallant defense, repulsing the attach of John Morgan with 3,000

On the 29th of September, 1862, it moved from Kalamazoo under orders to report at Louisville, its muster rolls showing a strength of 896.

The regiment was stationed at this point until December 8th following, when it was ordered to Munfordsville where it became engaged in a skirmish with the enemy on the 27th. Thence it moved to Bowling Green, January 8th, 1863, where it was employed on provost and picket duty, and in guarding railroad trains, until March 26th, when it proceeded to Lebanon and took part with the troops under General Manson, in pursuit of the rebels under Pegram. The rebels having been driven from Kentucky, the regiment returned to Lebanon, arriving April 3rd, and thence proceeded to Louisville, where it was engaged in provost and guard duty. The 25th had been assigned to the 1st brigade, 2d division, 23d corps, Army of the Ohio, in which it served to the close of the war. On June 10th, five companies, D, E, F, I, and K, under the commanding officer of the Regiment, Colonel Moore, were ordered to Lebanon, and thence marched to Green River Bridge, near Columbia, and on the 4th of July following were attached at Tebb’s Bend by a largely superior force of the enemy.

The following is from the Red Book of Michigan:

"About July 1st, Colonel Moore was stationed, with five companies of his regiment, on the north side of Green River, ten miles north of Columbia, on the main road running from Columbia, to Lebanon, Ky., and on the 2d of July was advised of the fact that the rebel General John H. Morgan, was about crossing the Cumberland river to invade the State, with a cavalry force of from three to four thousand men. Being left to exercise his own discretion independently, and there being no union troops nearer than at a post thirty miles distant, he felt that it was his duty to retard the progress of the great rebel raider, if but for a few hours, as they might prove precious hours to the country. He might have retreated with entire success, but from patriotic motives he chose to fight, when he could scarcely entertain the hope that he and many others would ever live to tell the story of that terrible battle.

"After surveying the surrounding country, he selected a strong position for a battlefield, on the south side of Green River, about two miles from the encampment, in a horseshoe bend in the river, through which the road ran, on which the rebel forces were advancing. This chosen battle-ground which was at the narrows entering the bend of the river, afforded high bluff banks, which protected the flanks of the command, and also compelled the rebels to fight him upon his own front. The Colonel instructed his command that there were no rebel troops organized that could whip them upon their own front, with the flanks protected, and with this judgment he was ready to engage ten times his own number of the enemy, feeling confident that his finely disciplined troops would do ten times better fighting than that of the rebels.

"On the evening of the 3d of July, General Morgan encamped with his entire command, about five miles south of Green river, and Colonel Moore after dark advanced with his command of five companies, numbering less than three hundred men, about two miles toward the enemy, leaving the river in his rear, and occupied the ground at Tebb’s Bend which he had previously selected, and prepared for the battle. The defense, which had been completed that night consisted of some felled trees on the battle-line, which was in the rear of an open field, and was intended more particularly as an obstruction to the advance of cavalry, while to the front, about one hundred yards in the open field, was thrown up a temporary earth-work, which was intended to check the advance of the enemy, and more especially to command a position where the enemy would evidently plant their battery. This work was not intended to be held against charges of a superior force, on account of the flanks not being strong, and was occupied by only about seventy-five men, who were instructed that when it became necessary to abandon the work, it should be done by flanking to the right and left from the center, so as to unmask the reserve force on the battle line and expose the enemy to their fire. This work was located, in anticipation of its capture by the rebels, a little down the slop of the field, so that when it was in possession of the enemy it would be useless and leave him exposed to a deadly fire.

"At the gray of morning the fire of the rebels upon the pickets resounded through the woods, and the entire rebel division, under General Morgan, was pressing upon the front. The fire was returned with spirit as the pickets retired to the breastwork, where they joined about seventy-five of their comrades, already in the advance work, and there, with their united fire as sharpshooters, held the enemy in check, without exhibiting their numbers and the real object of the work.

"The rebel artillery, of four pieces, had gained the anticipated position, and at once opened fire with some effect, when General Morgan suspended firing, and under flag of truce sent forward a dispatch demanding surrender.

"Colonel Moore rode forward between the lines, where he met the delegation of rebel officers, who appealed to him with marked courtesy and diplomacy, urging the surrender of his command, and promising kind treatment, as their only interest was to move forward on their course. Colonel Moore replied: ‘Present my compliments to General Morgan, and say to him that this being the Fourth of July I cannot entertain the proposition to surrender.’

"Colonel Allston, Morgan’s chief of staff, said: ‘I hope you will not consider me as dictatorial, on this occasion: I will be frank; you see the breach we have made upon your works with our battery; you cannot expect to repulse General Morgan’s whole division with your little command; you have resisted us gallantly and deserve credit for it, and now I hope you will save useless bloodshed by reconsidering the message to General Morgan.’ To this the Colonel replied: Sir, when you assume to know my strength you assume too much; I have a duty to perform to my country, and therefore cannot reconsider my reply to General Morgan.’ The rebel officer seemed moved by these remarks, extended his hand, and with a moist eye, said: ‘Good-bye, Colonel Moore; God only knows which of us may fall first.’ They turned their horses and galloped in opposite directions, and at once renewed the conflict. No sooner had the rebel battery reopened fire than Colonel Moore commanded the force to ‘rise up and pick those gunners at the battery.’ No sooner was the command given than a deliberate and deadly fire by rank was delivered, which silenced the battery. Colonel Johnson’s brigade then charged the work, and the little command abandoned it, as previously instructed; and when the rebels reached it they found that it availed them nothing against the deadly fire which was poured into them from the main force on the battle line in the timber.

"The rebel foe, with a hideous yell, charged across the open field a number of times in the face of a terrific fire, which repulsed them on each occasion with severe loss. The conflict was almost a hand to hand struggle, with nothing but a line of felled trees separating the combatants. At the same time the rebels were engaged in cutting out a gorge leading through the precipitory bluff into the river bottom, which had been obstructed with felled timber. The entrance was finally effected, and a regiment, commanded by Colonel Chenault, opened fire upon the right flank of the line of Union troops. This was a most critical and trying moment; the rebels had gained an important point; to defeat it was of the utmost importance; a company had been held in reserve for any emergency which might arise during the battle; it was now brought forward, deployed as skirmishers across the river bottom, with the right flank extending beyond the rebel line, and presented the appearance of being the advance line of reinforcements

"The strength of Colonel Moore’s command was a matter of doubt with the rebels, rendered more so by his having instructed his men to keep quiet and pour in as rapid and deadly a fire as possible. As cheering was suppressed, nothing but the efficacy of the firing afforded ground for estimating their strength, and when Colonel Moore brought forward and maneuvered the reserve company with the shrill notes of his bugle, it had the desired effect of impressing the rebels with the idea that reinforcements of cavalry or artillery were advancing, and by the bold front and deliberate firing of the line of skirmishers the rebel command in the river bottom was routed, the rebel colonel commanding killed, and they were promptly driven back through the gorge through which they entered, disheartened and defeated. New courage inspired the heroic little band who had sustained eight determined charges upon their front when the attack upon their right flank was defeated. The enemy, having met with a heavy loss after a battle of four hours’ duration, retreated, leaving a number of killed and wounded upon the field greater than the entire number of the patriotic little band that opposed them. Among the number of killed and wounded were 22 commissioned officers.

"The rebel command effected a crossing six miles down the river and proceeded on their march. It was his intention, as General Morgan declared, to capture the city of Louisville, but this unexpected and terrible repulse cost him more than twelve hours’ delay, and caused him, which fact he stated, to change his plans and abandon his attack upon Louisville. By this brillantly fought battle the city of Louisville was saved from sack and pillage and the government from the loss of an immense amount of property, consisting of munitions of war and army supplies amounting to the value of several millions of dollars."

Green River, Ky., July 4, 1963

Colonel, I have the honor to report that I have had a fight with the rebel General John Morgan.

I did not move my command from where it was encamped, on the north side of the river, until Morgan’s advance had entered Columbia. I then moved forward to occupy the ground which I had previously selected, and had the night before prepared for the fight, which was one and on-half miles in advance on the Columbia road, south side of the river. I did not at any time occupy the stockade, which was far in my rear, but gave battle at the narrows entering the bend.

I engaged the enemy’s force this morning at 3:30 o’clock; early in the engagement he opened on our breastworks with a battery, and after firing a shot disabling two of my men, he sent a flag of truce with the following despatch:


July 4 th, 1863

To the Officer Commanding the Federal Forces at Stockade near Green River Bridge, Ky.:

Sir,-In the name of the Confederate States government I demand an immediate and unconditional surrender of the entire force under your command, together with the stockade.
I am, very respectfully, sir, John H. Morgan,
Commanding Division Cav. C.S.A.

I sent a reply to General John Morgan that the Fourth day of July was no day for me to entertain such a proposition. After receiving the reply he opened fire with his artillery and musketry. My force, which occupied the open field, was withdrawn to the woods, where we engaged the enemy with a determination not to be defeated.
The battle raged for three and a half hours when the enemy retreated with a loss of over fifty killed and two hundred wounded. Among the killed was Colonel Chenault, Major Brent, another major and five captains and six lieutenants as near as can be estimated.

The conflict was fierce and bloody. At times the enemy occupied one side of the fallen timber while my men held the other in almost a hand to hand fight. The enemy’s force consisted of the greater part of Morgan’s division. My force was a fraction of my regiment, consisting of two hundred men, who fought gallantly. I cannot say too much in their praise.

Our loss was six killed and twenty-three wounded.

After the battle I received, under a flag of truce, a dispatch asking permission to bury their dead, which request I granted, proposing to deliver them in front of our lines.

The detachment of forty men, under command of Lieutenant M. A. Hogan, 8th Michigan Infantry, held the river at the ford, near the bridge, and repulsed a cavalry charge made by the enemy in a very creditable and gallant manner.

The gallantry of my officers and men in the action was such that I cannot individualize; they all did their duty nobly and the wounded were treated with the greatest care and attention by Assistant Surgeon J. N. Greggs, of my regiment, whose fine abilities as a surgeon are highly appreciated.
I am, Colonel, very respectfully your obedient servant, ORLANDO H. MOORE,
Col. 25th Mich. Infantry.
Lieutenant Colonel Geo. B. Drake, Assistant Adjutant General, Lexington, Ky. HEADQUARTERS 25th MICHIGAN INFANTRY,

July 4th, 1863 SPECIAL ORDER, No. 42.
My brave, my noble men, it is with pride and pleasure that I congratulate you upon the great victory won to-day. While you number but two hundred men, the enemy numbered thousands. Being advised of their strength, and of their advantage of heavy artillery bearing upon us, their demand for surrender was answered with a response that echoed the feeling of the gallant little band of the 25th Michigan
Infantry that was about to engage them.

The engagement was long and bloody, charge after charge was successfully repelled and after three and a half hours’ hard fighting the enemy was defeated and victory crowned our efforts.

Our brave companions who fell, fell gallantly fighting for their country and in defense of the starry flag. Their names, deeply inscribed on the pages of memory will be wreathed ever in bright laurels of fame, and though ‘tis hard to part with our noble dead, we know "’tis sweet in the cause of our country to die." Although no marble slab we have placed o’er their heads to mark their last resting place, although no monumental pile have we erected over their graves, yet, in the hearts of the people of our Peninsula State will be erected a monument that will perpetuate their names to all eternity.

By order of

Lexington, July 17, 1863


The General commanding, the corps hereby extends his thanks to the two hundred officers and soldiers of the 25th Michigan Regiment, under Colonel O.H. Moore, who so successfully resisted, by their gallant and heroic bravery, the attack of a vastly superior force of the enemy, under the rebel General, John Morgan, at Tebb’s Bend, on Green river, on the Fourth of July, 1863, in which they killed one-fourth as many of the enemy as their own little band amounted to, and wounded a number equal to their own. * *

By command of
Ass’t Adj’t. General.

The generalship of Colonel Moore in this affair was highly complimented by Morgan in several messages sent him, rather an unusual proceeding by a defeated enemy, so signally worsted, and in one of them he jocularly remarked, "I promote you to a Brigadier General."

In the private journal of Colonel Allston, Morgan’s chief of staff, catured a few days later, he says:

"General Morgan sent in a flag of truce and demanded the surrender, but the Colonel quietly remarked ‘If it was any other day he might consider the demand, but the 4th of July was a bad day to talk about surrender, and he must therefore decline.’ The Colonel is a gallant man, and the entire arrangement of his defense entitles him to the highest credit for military skill. We would mark such a man in
our army for promotion."

At the time these companies of the 25th were ordered from Louisville, Colonel Moore was Provost Marshal of that city. His administration of affairs, although faithfully rendered, was not agreeable to the large rebel element there at the time, bringing down on the Colonel the disapproval of a large class of citizens, together with the Louisville Journal, which attached him most severely. It was also said openly at the time that influences were brought about which led to his removal with the small command referred to, to Green river, with a view to placing him in a position to render his capture not improbable. If this was a fact, the gallant defense he made when so over-whelmingly attached, and which, as has been acknowledged saved Louisville from sack, the Journal included, was a merited rebuke to his enemies in that city. The same paper afterwards eulogized his bravery and great services and taking back all that it had said even to making a most ample apology, while the Legislature of Kentucky, in session at Lexington, commended his services in a set of complimentary resolutions thanking him and his command.

Following is from the Louisville Journal touching the matter:

"We saw yesterday a plan of the battle fought near Columbia on the 4th of July by the gallant Colonel O.H. Moore at the head of 200 men of the 25th Michigan, against John Morgan’s force of four or five thousand. Colonel Moore’s repulse of a force equal to twenty or twenty-five times his own was one of the most chivalrous affairs on record. Though it is unquestionable history, it reads like the wildest romance.

"Colonel Moore prepared his defenses with great judgment, but at the turning point of the battle he had not the slightest advantage in position. He and his men were upon one side and Morgan’s men upon the other side of an abatis of felled trees, crouching but a few yards apart and firing at each other upon terms of perfect equality through the branches.

"The fighting there was most terrific. All the Federal soldiers kept their places, the living not less than the dead, and the rebel hosts at length fled in confusion. The disaster sustained by Morgan upon this occasion cost him full twelve hours’ time in his movements. He had intended, as he himself stated, to make a dash into Louisville, but his long and unexpected delay caused him to change his plans.

"After the fight was over, Colonel Moore received information, apparently correct, that Wheeler’s cavalry were at Columbia advancing on him. He might have retreated, but, as he said to Morgan in reply to a summons to surrender, it was the Fourth of July. He made a brief harrangue to his men, telling them that they must be ready for an other hard fight, and against a force even greater than Morgan’s and they gave a loud cheer to indicate that they were ready. But no Wheeler was forthcoming.

"We do not think that Colonel Moore made a very good provost marshal when he was here, but he fights like the devil. We rashly invited him to make a charge with his fraction of a regiment upon the Journal office, but we now hope he won’t do it. We apologize. We retract. We back out. We knock under."

In Harper’s Magazine, August, 1865, Rev. John S. C. Abbott, the historian, writes as follows:

"Colonel Orlando H. Moore was in command of 200 patriot troops stationed at Tebb’s Bend, on Green river. This was the only force to retard the advance of the rebels upon New Market. On the 2d of July scouts brought in the report that Morgan’s band was advancing in full force upon the Bend. Undaunted by the vast superiority of the rebels in numbers, Colonel Moore, as soon as he received the news, mounted his horse and rode over the surrounding country to select his own battle-field. About two miles from his encampment he found a spot which suited him. The site chosen for the morrow’s battle was truly beautiful. It was a lawn of level ground, carpeted with velvety turf, and thick with trees, which, without the slightest impediment of underbrush, were waving in all the luxuriance of June foliage-a spot which a silvery river

"’Forsakes its course to fold as with an arm.’

"All night long the men relieved each other in the arduous work, with spade and pick, in throwing up intrenchments. Rifle-pits were dug; a barricade of felled trees was made to check cavalry charges; breastworks were thrown up to stand between the bosoms of the patriots and the bullets of the rebel foe. On the night of the 3d the gallant 200 took posseesion of these hurriedly constructed works, to beat back a small army of more than as many thousand.

"’Theirs not to reason why; Theirs not to make reply; Theirs but to do and die.’

"With not one word of murmuring, and with not one straggler, these heroic men planted themselves behind their frail redoubts to wait the oncoming surge of battle. All were prepared to meet, and with god’s aid were determined to repel the charge from the foe, however numerous that foe might prove to be. There was but little sleep in that patriot encampment that night. The men grasping their arms, lay down in the trenches, and thought of home, wife, children, and friends. Memory was busy with the days which had fled, while stern yet anxious thought dwelt upon the future of to-morrow.

The next day was the Fourth of July. That thought alone helped to make them heroes. Who could tell how many, then and there, would be called to put on a martyr’s crown?

"With the first rays of the morning sun came the first balls from the rifles of Morgan’s sharpshooters. Soon a shell came, with its hideous shriek, plump into the little redoubt, wounding two men. With this hint of what they might expect if obstinate, Morgan sent a flag of truce with Major Elliott, demanding an immediate surrender of the entire force under Moore’s command. Colonel Moore replied: ‘Present my compliments to General Morgan, and say to him that, this being the Fourth of July, I cannot entertain the proposition." Then, turning to his men, he said: ‘Now rise up, take good aim, and pick off those gunners.’ At those words the patriots opened a calm, deliberate, and deadly fire. The numerous trees and the intrenchments they had thrown up afforded them very efficient protection.
Gradually the little redoubt became nearly encircled by the rebels. Still no one thought of yielding. Colonel Moore was everywhere encouraging and inspiring his men with his own enthusiastic patriotism. The heroic band still loaded and fired with fatal precision, though

"’Cannon to right of them,
Cannon to left of them,
Cannon in front of them,
Volleyed and thundered."

"No hand trembled, no heat faltered. For God and the flag they fought and bled. The battle raged with unabated fury on both sides for four hours. At last the enemy retreated, leaving his dead on the field. The rebel army thus checked and discomfited, relinquished the prey it had hoped to grasp, and by a circuit avoiding New Market, continued its plundering raid; the conquerors, justly exultant over their chivalric achievements, with new zest celebrated the Fourth of July. They were entitled to unusual joy, for they themselves had contributed another triumph to the ever memorable day."

A correspondent writes:

" The battalion of the 25th Michigan Infantry, stationed at or near Green River bridge, occupied a position of much importance. All forces in front were drawn off and no reinforcements within thirty-five miles.

"For some days before the fight it was currently reported that Duke and Johnson, under the direction of Morgan, were crossing the Cumberland at Berksville and Creelsboro with a force of ten regiments of cavalry and several pieces of artillery. On the second instant information was received that the enemy was advancing on our position. Colonel Moore mounted his horse, and riding over the surrounding country, chose his ground and planted his men for a fight, determined that the first opportunity of engaging the enemy should not go untried.

"Men were that night set at work with spades and axes, and when the morning dawned a fine rifle-pit was to be seen, while in the rear a barricade of fallen trees was thrown to check all cavalry charges. Seventy-five men were kept in the trenches during the day, and in the evening, after the enemy’s spies had visited our lines, found our exact position, and made their reports, we began a movement of our forces, with all our stores and camp and garrison equipage. While we were thus engaged the enemy was by no means neglectful, the sound of preparation on our front proclaiming that he was busy.

"Our lines were visted at about one o’clock A.M., and all seemed in order. Companies D, E, F, and K occupied the earthworks, while Company I was held as a reserve. The scene was exciting and beautiful, the men, wakeful with the thoughts of the coming struggle, were jovial and happy, the brightened barrels of the arms glittering in the moonlight rendered the view soul-inspiring. Thus all continued, and as the first bright rays of morning streamed up the eastern sky, our last wagon crossed the ford, and the sharpshooters of the enemy opened the ball. Thus the engagement began, and thus it continued for nearly an hour, when the enemy having his artillery in position, sent a shell plunging into our earthworks, disabling two of our men before we had an opportunity of clearing the enemy away from his guns. "Now, my men," says Moore, "rise up, take good aim, and pick those gunners.’ The words were sufficient, but ere the deadly fire was poured in upon them, the old Parrot gun of the enemy boomed forth again in its tones of thunder.

The volley from our fortifications did splendid execution, for not a man was left to

tell the story. "The enemy charged upon us, and we fell back to the timber. The fight now became terrible. The men fought with a desperation I never saw equaled. They seemed to feel that the enemy was yet to be organized that was to whip them. All possible chance of retreat was cut off, and no support within thirty-five miles.
The enemy occupied one side of the tree tops while we held the other. The case was indeed one that called forth the exertions of every member of the little band. ‘Twas life or death, and all were determined rather to die nobly and manfully fighting than cowardly surrendering without a struggle. Seven charges followed the first, but the advancing foe fell dead before us. The firing continued for nearly four hours, when the enemy retreated, leaving his dead on the field. His loss in killed and wounded was very severe, being much greater than our entire numbers, and among the former many of Morgan’s ablest officer.

"Thus the Fourth day of July, made memorable in the annals of history, was to-day brought nearer and dearer to us by the gaining of a splendid victory over John Morgan’s entire division."

"There cannot be too much said in praise of the men. In a fair field fight they defeated John Morgan, the rebel raider, the terrifier of Kentucky. The officers were every where needed and deserve credit for their coolness and bravery. Colonel Moore’s courage, coolness, and daring must call forth the admiration of all. His conduct on the field of battle cheered his men to strenuous efforts, for in every post of danger he was in their midst. He was ever where the bullets fell thickest, and by his good generalship won the day. General Morgan admired his generalship so much that he promoted him to a Brigadier General. But the Colonel says the largest
brigade he wished to command is the 25th Michigan Infantry."

The companies which had remained at Louisville joined the regiment at Lebanon, August 19th, and on the same day the regiment commenced its march with the 1st brigade, 1st division, 23d corps, over the mountains into East Tennessee. It participated in many of the movements made during September and October, and was encamped at Loudon, October 31st.

Marching from its camp at Loudon, East Tennessee, on the 9th of November, 1863, this Regiment, then in command of Captain S. L. Demarest, proceeded to Kingston, where it remained until the 4th of December. On the 26th of November it assisted in the defense of Kingston, which had been attached by the forces under the rebel Generals Wheeler and Armstrong. The rebel troops, after a spirited engagement were repulsed with severe loss. The 25th, during the action, lost two men wounded. It left Kingston on the 4th of December, and after various marches arrived at Mossy Creek on the 27th. On the 29th the place was attached by the enemy under General Martin. The contest continued during the day, but at night the rebels made a hasty retreat. The regiment remained quietly in camp at Mossy Creek until the night of the 18th of January, 1964, when the Union forces commenced falling back to Knoxville, the regiment arriving at Knoxville on the 21st. On the 24th of February, an advance being made toward Morristown, the 25th left its camp, and after several marches and counter-marches, arrived at Morristown on the 12th of March, but fell back to Mossy Creek on the 18th. A camp was there established and the regiment completely equipped, and preparations made for the summer campaign. Breaking camp on the 25th of April, the regiment, in command of Lieutenant Colonel B. F. Orcutt, with its Corps, began the march from East Tennessee, and on the 4th of May encamped at Red Clay, Ga. The movements of the regiment during the summer campaign in Georgia were identified with those of the Army of the Ohio, which formed a part of the army under command of General Sherman. During this campaign the regiment participated in the various engagements at Tunnel Hill, May 7th and 8th; Rocky Face Ridge, May 9th; Resaca, May 14th.

Correspondent N. Y. Tribune regarding the affair at Rocky Face:

" The skirmishers did their work well keeping the enemy’s pickets on a lively run. Only two or three men were wounded during this advance, until we reached the woods. The 25th Michigan, 80th Indiana, and 6th Tennessee soon came to the corner of the woods, when as they ascended a rise of ground they were met by a rapid discharge of shot and shell from the enemy’s battery on the left, now distant about 1,000 yards. The first shot truck plump into the line of the 25th Michigan, which killed one man and wounded two others. The 80th Indiana also had one or two men wounded by shells which burst in their line. The regiments kept their position like veterans, but lay down.

"Heavy firing by the rebel artillery was continued, sweeping the field with shot and shell until late in the evening.

"The union troops advanced through the woods and over the undulating slopes until they found the enemy in strong force. Pressing the rebel line steadily back, however, they drove them to their rifle pits which extended in a semi-circle across the valley and up the side of the mountain to an earthwork on the crest. There were one or two guns in battery near the center of the work, and the whole front was protected by abatis and stakes sharpened to a point. The enemy’s position was very strong, and upon consultation, in view of the great expense of life which an assault would cost, and the uncertainty of being able to hold the position, it was decided by General Schofield to countermand the order for an advance.

"A consultation was held by the Generals during the night, and it was determined to hold the present position and await the result of the operations of the right."

The following is an extract report of Colonel Orcutt, commanding regiment:

"* * * At Resaca, May 14th the regiment participated in the charge made by our division (Judah’s) and drove the enemy from a strong and well fortified position. The charge was made over an open field and through a creek, with the water waist deep, under a murderous fire of musketry and artillery. Here the regiment lost fifty men in less than five minutes. Adjutant Ed. M. Prutzman was killed in this affair." *

The regiment also participated in the engagements at Cassville, May 19th; Etowah River, May 20th; Kingston, May 27th; Altoona, May 26th, 27th, 28th, 29th; Pine Mountain, June 3d to 7th; Lost Mountain, June 10th to 18th; Culp’s Farm, June 22d; Kenesaw Mountain, June 23d to 29th; Nickajack Creek, July 1st; Chattahoochee river, July 9th. The regiment crossed that river on July 9th, was engaged at Decatur on July 18th and 19th, and on the 22d appeared in front of Atlanta. It took an active part in the siege of that place. On the 6th of August it charged and assisted in carrying the enemy’s works near East Point at Utoy Creek. The 25th also participated in the flank movement west and south of Atlanta to Jonesboro, which was followed by the evacuation of Atlanta by the rebel army. After the capture of Atlanta its corps occupied Decatur, Ga. During this campaign the regiment was under fire for fifty-eight days and nights, and was within hearing of the skirmishers for over one hundred days. On the 4th of October it left Decatur, Ga., and participated in the campaign under General Sherman, while in pursuit of the rebel army under General Hood, then engaged in making his northern movement through Alabama, and met the enemy at Rome on the 12th, and at Cedar Bluff, Ala., on the 23d. On the 31st of October the 25th was encamped at Rome, Ga. During the year it had marched over one thousand miles and suffered many hardships and privations.

On the 1st of November, 1864, the regiment, again in command of Lieutenant Colonel Orcutt, Colonel Moore being in command of the 2d brigade, 2d division, 23d corps, was near Rome, serving in the 1st brigade, same division and corps. On the 2d it marched to Resaca, then took rail to Johnsonvile, Tenn., where it arrived on the 5th, and remained there until the 14th, when, with its brigade it marched to Centreville to guard several important fords on Duck river, and was engaged at Pine Creek on the 26th, and at Franklin on the 30th, and soon after the engagement at the latter place it was ordered with its brigade to Nashville, but owing to the rebel General Hood having invested that place, it was compelled to make a circuitous march of 250 miles by way of Clarksville, to reach that point, and at one time was within the rebel lines, but under cover of a dark night made its way out and arrived at Nashville December 8th, and on the 15th and 16th took part in the battle before  that city, with a loss of one killed and seven wounded. The regiment having served in the same brigade, division, and corps, during its entire service, was afterwards identified with all the movements of the 23d corps in its march to Columbia in pursuit of Hood’s army.

From Columbia the regiment marched to Clifton, on the Tennessee river, distant 250 miles, where it embarked on steamers for Cincinnati, and thence proceeded by

rail to Washington, D. C., and soon after took transports for North Carolina, where it participated in the movements of General Schofield’s army. After the surrender of the rebel forces under Johnston it was sent to Salisbury, where it remained until June 24th, 1865, when it was mustered out of service and in command of Colonel Moore started for Michigan, arriving on the 2d of July at Jackson, where it was
paid off and discharged.

The 25th was engaged at Munfordsville, Ky., December 27, 1862; Tebb’s Bend, Ky., July 4, 1863; Kingston, Tenn., November 26, 1863; Mossy Creek, Tenn, December
29, 1863; Tunnel Hill, Ga., May 7 and 8, 1864; Rocky Face, Ga., May 9 and 10,
1864; Resaca, Ga., May 13 and 14, 1864; Cassville, Ga., May 19, 1864; Etowah river,
Ga., May 20, 1864; Kingston, Ga., May 27, 1864; Altoona, Ga., May 26, 27, 28, and
29, 1864; Pine Mountain, Ga., June 3 to 7, 1864; Lost Mountain, Ga., June 10 to 18,
1864; Culp’s Farm, Ga., June 22, 1864; Kenesaw, Ga., June 23 to 29, 1864;
Nickajack Creek,Ga., July 1, 1864; Chattahoochee river, Ga., July 9, 1864; Decatur,
Ga., July 18 and 19, 1864; Atlanta, Ga., July 20, 22, and 28, 1864; East Point, Ga.,
August 3, 1864; Utoy Creek, Ga., August 6, 1864; siege of Atlanta, Ga, July 22 to
August 25, 1864; Jonesboro, Ga., September 3 and 4, 1864; Rome, Ga., October 12,
1864; Cedar Bluffs, Ala., October 23, 1864; Pine Creek, Tenn., November 26, 1864;
Franklin Tenn., November 30, 1864; Nashville, Tenn., December 15 and 16, 1984.

The losses of this regiment were 1 officer and 21 men killed in action, 13 men died of wounds, 2 officers and 129 men of disease, having borne on its rolls 988 officers and men, and 166 being its total loss.

"Do you know, O men now lying In the low and chilly bed, That we the slowly dying
Are giving a day to the dead?"

NOTES:-One of the most singular cases of escape from death, of suffering from thirst and wounds, of final restoration to his comrades in arms, and cheating the blood-thirsty guerrillas of their prey, and consequent exposure to their wicked and outrageous practices, is affordd in the case of Sergeant Oliver H. Blanchard, Company E, 25th Regiment Michigan Infantry. "It is enough to stir a fever in the blood of age." It was reported by a soldier, who was captured at the same time, that Blanchard was killed. The description of the man was so clear that there seemed no room to doubt that he had been shot dead. His name had been dropped from his company book, his final statements made out and sent to Michigan; and in my article of December 14th he was reported killed by bushwhackers. Our surprise and joy on hearing, yesterday, that he was alive and here in this town will only be equaled by his friends when they learn that he is alive and doing well. He is able to walk about town. His story is as follows:

"November 26th.-I was unable to keep up with the regiment, and in company with several others fell some distance to the rear. The next day, Sunday, we crossed Piney creek in the forenoon, and were in company with Moses Buck, Company B, William Dewey, Company D, Corporal George Westover, Company G, Sergeant Otto Boot, Company I, and a man from the 99th Ohio. When about a quarter of a mile from the creek 25 or 30 guerrillas suddenly dashed upon us from a bend in the road. They fired upon us and demanded us to surrender. No one was hit by the firing.

"I had a watch and two pocket-books, one containing $3 in my right-hand pocket, and one containing $40 in the other. They asked for my watch and pocket-book. I gave them the watch and the pocket-book containing the $3. Four guerrillas now took six of us and went round by a creek and halted till another squad came up.

Then we were counted off and formed into small squads. I was in the first squad, and we were marched over a hill into a deep ravine. Here we halted, and they ordered me to turn my back. I said, ‘For God’s sake don’t shoot us so.’ The words were hardly out of my mouth when they fired. One ball went through my memorandum book, entered a little below the center of my right breast, glanced round and lodged near my back bone, just below the skin, where it still remains. A second shot struck the top button of my coat, shivered it to pieces, glanced and passed into my left breast and came out under my arm, inflicting only a slight wound.

When I was shot I fell forward and fainted. I soon came to myself and found the guerrillas cutting the buttons off my coat and searching my pockets. As I lay on my left side they did not find my pocket-book containing $40. They took my boots, pants, and hat, and left an old pair of shoes. I have Moses Buck’s hat, which has a ball hole made when I was shot. The man that was searching me says to another, ‘John, this d—d rascal ain’t dead; he’s playing off.’ The other came up, but having no load in his pistol, said, "D—n him, he’s shot clear through—he’s dead enough’ and they went off and left me, They seemed to be in a great hurry, and did not wait to see that their work was well done.

"I lay there till near the next morning. Before daylight I crawled down where William Dewey, Company D, was, and lay there till daylight. With the help of a stick I got up, but hearing some one talking I lay down on Dewey’s arm. Two men came along and searched around for some time. I did not dare to speak for fear they would shoot me, and they did not discover that I was alive. The persons proved to be Mr. Hammond and his son. After they were gone I got out of the ravine and crawled over into another, and climbed up on a side hill into the top of a fallen chestnut tree. I was not hungry, but suffered intensely from thirst. The roof of my mouth became dry and parched, and I was in constant pain from my wounds. While I lay there I saw several citizens come and bury my companions.

"I lay there till after dark, and during the night crawled up the hill, crossed a road into a corn field, then into a field grown up to weeds. I lay there in the weeds all day, all night, and the next day till most night. All this while I was without food or drink. My wounds were very painful, and my suffering was very great. When the sun was about two hours high a man who was picking cotton near by heard me cough and came to me. He said he heard me the day before, but supposed it was some of the negroes. I was carried to the house of Joseph Hassell, where I remained till the 6th of December. The people were very kind to me, and I had everything I could wish.
Several guerrillas came in to see me, and tried to pursuade me to go with them to Forrest’s scouts to be paroled; but I refused. They asked if the bushwhackers took my money; I told them they did. They asked how much; I told them three dollars. One of them gave me three dollars and another ten. I considered this only a ruse to deceive me.

"Two days before I left this place I learned they intended to kill me, and were to wait till Christmas, when they were to have a great carnival over me, and have their own fun killing me a second time. Not liking the shape matters were taking, I pad a negro to run me off and take me across Duck river. He took me to within a quarter of a mile of Centerville, when I walked to the town. Here I fell in with Mr. James Carr, who was taking with him a led horse. He let me ride this horse, and I came to within 14 miles of Columbia, to Andrew Crawford’s, a Union Man.

"I now thought it better to make my way to Columbia and give myself up to the rebels as a prisoner of war, than to risk myself with the bushwhackers; but Mr. Crawford persuaded me to stay, saying the rebels would never take Nashville, but would soon fall back and I could join our troops. I staid with him one week. While there a rebel officer came and staid all night. He was going to Johnsonville to order a brigade that was there to go Florence as soon as possible. I saw him coming and went into a back room and covered myself with a quantity of cotton, and lay there till he was gone the next morning. From Crawford’s I went to Daniel McKenon’s, six miles from Columbia, and his two sons brought me to Columbia, Tuesday, Dec.

This is one case among hundreds where our noble soldiers were brutally murdered, made the sport and jeer of men claiming to fight for their country. but proving themselves barbarians, yea, savages. Think of this, ye sympathizers with the rebellion, and consider the character and practices of your would-be friends; and then look a Federal soldier in the face, if you can, and say, "I hope the rebels will triumph." If you can, you deserve to swing on the same gallows with them, higher than Haman. L.C.H.

A pronounced and universal patriotism was proverbial among Northern women, while many of them defended the flag in the field with a courage and endurance worthy the other sex, and Michigan was not without her examples.

"In 1863, a Captain, accompanied by a young soldier apparently about seventeen, arrived in Louisville in charge of some rebel prisoners. The soldier attracted the attention of Colonel Mundy, at that time commanding officer of the post, by his intelligence and sprightly appearance. The Colonel detailed him for duty at Barracks No. 1, with the25th Michigan, then garrisoning Louisville. He soon won the esteem of his officers and became a general favorite with all. Soon, however, the startling secret was disclosed, and whisperings went thick and fast, the young soldier was a lady; the fact was reported and established by a soldier who was raised in the same town with her and knew her parents. She begged to be retained; having been in service ten months, she desired to serve during the war; her wish was granted, and she was continued on duty in the hospital. Her name then was Frank Martin; her proper name she refused to give. She was born in New Bristol, Conn., but was raised in Alleghany City, Penn.; her parents were very respectable people. At the age of twelve she was sent to a convent at Wheeling, where she remained till the outbreaking of the war, and was well educated and accomplished. She left the convent, enlisted in an East Tennessee cavalry regiment, and went with the Army of the Cumberland to Nashville. She was in the engagement at Stone River, and severely wounded. Her sex was then discovered, and she was mustered out, although entreating earnestly with tears in her eyes to be continued in service. Determined to enlist again, it is reported that she joined the 8th Michigan Infantry, and is supposed to have belonged to it when she came to Louisville with the Captain and prisoners.
Frank was quite small, a beautiful figure, auburn hair, large blue eyes beaming with brightness and intelligence; her complexion naturally very fair, though bronzed by exposure. She was exceedingly pretty and very amiable. She was very patriotic and determined to see the war out."

When the 25th left Louisville to enter upon the Atlanta campaign, she remained there, and of her whereabouts since, nothing is known by the members of the Regiment.

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